Chronic kidney disease: Diagnosis

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common cause of illness and mortality in feline patients, with approximately 10% of cats older than 10 years and 30% of cats older than 15 years suffer from CKD. Read more about clinical signs of CKD.

Tags: Chronic kidney disease, feline, diagnosis, kidney function, glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, tubular reabsorption, fluid balance, causes, chronic interstitial nephritis, toxic insults, immune mediated processes, chronic inflammatory disease, Crandell Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cell line antigens, hypertension, polycystic kidneu desease, Persian cats, renal amyloidosis, Abyssinians, neoplasia, lymphoma, adenocarcinoma, pyelonephritis, viral infections, FIP, 'big kidney, little kidney' syndrome, clinical signs, anorexia, lethargy, depression, polyuria, polydipsia, constipation, vomiting, oral ulceration, melena, muscle weakness, physical examination, poor bodily condition, hair coat, large or small kidneys, dehydration, hypertensive retinopathy or hyphaema, staging scheme, serum creatinine values, urine protein concentration, systemic blood pressure, UPC, urine protein creatinine ratio.

Chronic Kidney Disease: Management  

Cats with CKD are often inappetent, however, it is very important that cats continue to eat when they have renal failure, and therefore, cats should be encouraged to consume adequate calories to maintain a bodily condition score of 4 to 5 out of 9.  There is good evidence that providing cats with renal failure with a renal diet will delay the onset of uraemia (Stage 4 chronic kidney disease), and premature death. Read more about the long-term prognosis for cats with chronic kidney disease.

Tags: Chronic Kidney Disease, management, encourage eating, maintain bodily condition score, renal diet, delay uraemia, complications, gastritis, stomatitis, H2blocker, famotidine, sucralphate, phosphate binder, Aluminium hydroxide, lantharenol, chitosan, calcium carbonate, omega 3 fatty acids, hypokalaemia, hypoproliferative anaemia, renal erythropoietin production, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, acidosis, fluid therapy, adequate hydration, mild chronic dehydration, subcutaneous fluids, complications, urinary tract infections, proteinuria, ACE-inhibitor, hypertension, calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, prognosis. 

Urinalysis in the diagnosis of kidney disease in dogs and cats  

In veterinary practice the urine test is a useful way to learn about the state of health of the kidneys. This analysis has a low cost and is psychologically easier to offer to an owner than a blood test. Furthermore, as is now well known in the literature, proteinuria may be the only, or at least the first, data indicating a nephropathy in asymptomatic animals.The purpose of this review is to understand how to perform a proper analysis of the urine, how to interpret the parameters found and deepen the meaning of proteinuria.

Tags: Urinalysis, diagnosis, kidney disease, dogs, cats, proteinuria, indicating nephropathy, standardise the method, same amount of urine, echo-guided cystocentesis, color, turbidity, colorimetric tests, reactive strips, semi-quantitative evaluation, protein, glucose, ketone bodies, pH, red blood cells, white blood cells, refractometric urine specific gravity, sediment reading, urinary parameters in diagnosis, amount of produced urine, interpretation of protein, combination with specific gravity, presence of glucose, Fanconi syndrome, high number of cylinders, renal physiology, pathological proteinuria, quantification of protein loss, proteinuria:creatinine ratio (UPC), semi-quantitative immunoassay test, microalbuminuria, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Agarose Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-AGE), differentiation proteinuria, tubular, selective glomerular, non-selective glomerular, mixed incomplete, mixed complete.

Long-term management of renal disease  

Welcome to this video-presentation where dr. Sarah Caney BVSc PhD DSAM(Feline) MRCVS RCVS Specialist in Feline Medicine - United Kingdom shares her unique and valuable experience regards 'Successful long-term care of cats with chronic kidney disease.'

Learning outcomes:

  • Understanding the different functions performed by healthy kidneys and hence complications associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD)
  • How to assess and treat the common complications associated with CKD
  • Check-ups and monitoring recommended for cats with CKD
  • Information on providing support resources to your clients and ensuring optimal care of patients